The effectiveness of a low-carbohydrate diet in management of type 2 diabetes - A systematic review of the current literature

  • haugen_mame5910_2014.pdf (990k)

Forfatter(e)

Utgivelsesdato

2014

Serie/Rapportnr.

MAEH;2014

Utgiver

Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus

Dokumenttype

Masterprogram

Master i samfunnsernæring

Sammendrag

Background: Dietary treatment is a key factor in management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and facilitation of a healthy diet is essential to achieve treatment goals. Traditionally, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet has been recommended in management of T2D, but recent research suggests that a low-carbohydrate diet may be an option in the short term. Aim/research question: The aim of this master thesis was to conduct a systematic literature review and meta-analysis about the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets on weight management, metabolic control and compliance in adults with T2D. Methods/methodology: A systematic search of the following databases was conducted: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Food Science Source and SweMed+. Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 E%) compared to a diet containing >40 E% from carbohydrates, in individuals with T2D, were included in the review Results: Of the 1180 articles identified through the literature search, 29 studies with a total of 1832 participants, were included in the review. Between dietary interventions, three studies favoured the low-carbohydrate diet in weight management, three on HbA1c, four on HDL-cholesterol, one on LDL-cholesterol, two on triacylglycerol, one on systolic blood pressure, and three on diastolic blood pressure. The majority of these low-carbohydrate diets was high in dietary fat, and were compared against low-fat diets, low-protein diets, a low-glycaemic index diet, a high-glycaemic index diet, a Mediterranean diet and standard diabetes care. Conclusion: This master thesis found that low-carbohydrate diets improved weight, HbA1c and cardiovascular risk factors in T2D patients. Still, when compared to control diets with a higher content from carbohydrates, the low-carbohydrate diets were not superior. Compliance to the low-carbohydrate diets appeared to be difficult to achieve and further investigations are needed to identify dietary approaches that can be followed in the long term management of T2D.

Emneord

Permanent URL

  • http://hdl.handle.net/10642/2051