Heliyon;Volume 4, Issue 12, December 2018
Objective: Transcriptional regulatory elements in the ameloblastin (AMBN) promoter indicate that adipogenesis may influence its expression. The objective here was to investigate if AMBN is expressed in adipose tissue, and have a role during differentiation of adipocytes. Design: AMBN expression was examined in adipose tissue and adipocytes by real-time PCR and ELISA. Distribution of ameloblastin was investigated by immunofluorescence in sections of human subcutaneous adipose tissue. The effect of recombinant proteins resembling AMBN and its processed products on proliferation of primary human pre-adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 cell lines was measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The effect on adipocyte differentiation was evaluated by the expression profile of the adipogenic markers PPARγ and leptin, and the content of lipids droplets (Oil-Red-O staining). Results: AMBN was found to be expressed in human adipose tissue, human primary adipocytes, and in 3T3-L1 cells. The C-terminus of the AMBN protein and a 45 bp shorter splice variant was identified in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. The expression of AMBN was found to increase four-fold during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Administration of recombinant AMBN reduced the proliferation, and enhanced the expression of PPARγ and leptin in 3T3-L1 and human pre-adipocytes, respectively. Conclusions: The AMBN C-terminus variant was identified in adipocytes. This variant may be encoded from a short splice variant. Increased expression of AMBN during adipogenesis and its effect on adipogenic factors suggests that AMBN also has a role in adipocyte development.