- PhysRevA.79.043418.pdf (213k)
The time-dependent Dirac equation is solved numerically and compared to the corresponding prediction of the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation for hydrogenlike systems exposed to intense laser pulses. It is found that for a correct description of effects beyond the dipole approximation, virtual electron-positron pairs can be very important. Relativistic effects in the ionization dynamics of highly charged systems are studied.
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