Longitudinal development of the dust microbiome in a newly opened Norwegian kindergarten


Publication date


Series/Report no

Microbiome;(2018) 6:159



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Background In Norway, 91% of children aged 1–5 attend kindergarten where they are exposed to indoor microbiomes which can have relevance for development and health. In order to gain a better understanding of the composition of the indoor microbiome and how it is affected by occupancy over time, floor dust samples from a newly opened kindergarten were investigated. Samples were collected during an 11-month period. Samples were analyzed for bacterial composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Samples were also screened for four clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes. In addition, Petrifilm analyses were used to evaluate surface hygiene. Results Significant changes in the microbial community composition were observed over time (PERMANOVA, P < 0.05). Particularly, changes in the abundance and the proportions of human associated bacteria were found. A decrease in the prevalence of Propionibacterium from over 16% abundance to less than 1% and an increase in Streptococcus from 10 to 16% were the most significant findings. Four classes of clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes were tested for; three were detected in the dust, indicating the presence of resistant bacteria and a potential for resistance spread. Petrifilm analysis showed that some surfaces in the kindergarten were of consistent poor hygienic quality, and new hygienic routines are required. Conclusions This study, which is the first of its kind performed at a newly opened kindergarten, reveals changes in the microbiome over time as well as the presence of antibiotic resistance genes and hygiene issues which are of relevance for occupant health.




Permanent URL (for citation purposes)

  • https://hdl.handle.net/10642/6557