Kostholdsstudie blant Saharawiske kvinner i flyktningleirer ved Tindouf, Algerie: En kartlegging av matinntak og måltidsmønster blant flyktninger fra Vest-Sahara


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Høgskolen i Akershus

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Master i samfunnsernæring


Background: The high prevalence of goiter that studies have found among the refugees from Western Sahara living in refugee camps at Tindouf in Algeria, made the Ministry of Health in the exile government Polisario, make a request to conduct a study to examine and find solutions to this public health problem. Objective: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine food intake and meal patterns among women aged 15 to 45 in the refugee camps. Methods. The sample consisted of 405 women of childbearing age, living in four refugee camps close to Tindouf in Algeria. Food intake was analyzed by the use of Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS). 24-hour dietary interview was done to describe the meal pattern. Differences between the camps were also assessed. Background data at household level and on the women were obtained and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: It was found that 98% of the women had eaten cereals such as bread, rice and spaghetti. Sixty percent had consumed milk products. Over half had eaten from vitamin A-rich vegetables and fruit, like carrots, and legumes, like lentils and beans. Ninety-four percent ate other vegetables like onions and potatoes. Almost 60 % had eaten meat, while less than half had eaten fish. Virtually all had consumed tea, oil and grease. Forty-seven percent of women had low IDDS and ate from only two food groups, respectively, cereals and other vegetables. It was 28% of the women who had medium IDDS, they ate from three food groups, cereals, other vegetables, and enriched foods. Twenty-five percent of women had high IDDS, they had eaten from 7 different food groups. Respectively: cereals, dairy products, vitamin A rich vegetables and fruits, other vegetables, other fruits, legumes and fortified foods. Virtually all the women had eaten breakfast, lunch and dinner, while only 38% had eaten between meals. Most ate breakfast at between 8 and 9 and it was mostly eaten bread and drunken tea for this meal. The lunch meal was most commonly eaten between 13 and 14. Women in Smara have eaten significantly more vegetables and fewer legumes than in the other camps. Evening meal was eaten by the majority at 22pm. Two thirds had consumed cereals such as rice or spaghetti for dinner, while in Dakla 83 % of the women had eaten cereals. In Dakla there were also many who had eaten fish. Approximately one quarter of the women ate one between meal, while only twelve women had eaten two in between meals. Between meals consisted mainly of tea, but also some milk. There were significantly more people drinking tea in Smara and milk in Dakla. The reasons for the differences between the camps may be because the camps receive food rations distributed in different weeks during a month. Conclusion: Women in refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria is characterized by the double burden of disease. They have deficiency diseases like anemia, goiter and diabetes, while many are suffering from obesity. The women in the camps were eating staple foods in the form of wheat, rice and spaghetti. In addition, legumes were also used as basic food, even if it is a typical protein source and should be a secondary food. Secondary Foods such as oil and fat was distributed along as basic food, while vegetables were distributed irregularly and in small quantities. People had to get their own milk. Peripheral foods that were eaten in the camps was tea and sugar. The food was eaten in three meals per day, respectively, breakfast, lunch and dinner, where lunch was the main meal. It was also tea- and milk drinking in between meals during the day. Significant differences between the camps according to what was eaten in the various meals were found. The reason these differences may be uneven distribution of food rations at camp level


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  • http://hdl.handle.net/10642/750