Inclusion through the concept of adapted education : a review of the Norwegian challenges


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Specialusis ugdymas Special Education;22 (1)


Šiauliai University Special Education Research Centre

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Inclusion has since the UNESCO conference in 1994, been the global denominator and ideology of most western societies school policies and practises. The debate has mostly focused on how to respond to and facilitate education for the diversity of pupils within the public school. In Norway, the debate about inclusion has not captured the same attention, and instead the focus has been on how to understand and implement the principle of adapted education. The principles of inclusion and adapted education have common denominators, implying sensitivity and responsibility towards the multiplicity of pupils. In educational settings inclusion also comprises that schooling from its outset should be designed with pupils’ diversity in mind. The aim of the paper is to discuss inclusive education with a particular view to Norwegian education and special education policy and practise. The paper describes and discusses educational trends from the establishment of the Norwegian compulsory school in the first half of the 1900 sensory up to current challenges in the latter years. In the end of the paper, some current challenges regarding the implementation of an inclusive school are discussed in the light of findings showing a growing body of pupils advised to special education.


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