Gender discrimination before mandated quotas? Evidence from Norway: 1989 to 2002

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Scandinavian Journal of Management;31(3)



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Is the low percentage of women on boards due to discrimination? Discrimination has a time dimension; it is repeated period after period and is thus highly persistent. This persistence is tested with data from Norway before quota regulations were instituted in 2003. The data consist of an unbalanced panel sample of all non-financial listed companies from 1989 to 2002. Persistence implies a serial correlation close to one. The main finding is low persistence, implying no discrimination in the sample period. The lack of significant estimates for managerial power supports the persistence result. The main result is also robust to varying the definition of female representation.



“NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Scandinavian Journal of Management. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Strøm, R. Ø. (2015). Gender discrimination before mandated quotas? Evidence from Norway: 1989–2002. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 31(3), 303-315."

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