Cells;Volume 8, Issue 1
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators. Here, 448 different miRNA genes, including 17 novel miRNAs, encoding for 589 mature Atlantic salmon miRNAs were identiﬁed after sequencing 111 samples (fry, pathogen challenged fry, various developmental and adult tissues). This increased the reference miRNAome with almost one hundred genes. Prior to isomiR characterization (mature miRNA variants), the proportion of erroneous sequence variants (ESVs) arising in the analysis pipeline was assessed. The ESVs were biased towards 5’ and 3’ end of reads in unexpectedly high proportions indicating that measurements of ESVs rather than Phred score should be used to avoid misinterpreting ESVs as isomiRs. Forty-three isomiRs were subsequently discovered. The biological effect of the isomiRs measured as increases in target diversity was small (<3%). Five miRNA genes showed allelic variation that had a large impact on target gene diversity if present in the seed. Twenty-one miRNAs were ubiquitously expressed while 31 miRNAs showed predominant expression in one or few tissues, indicating housekeeping or tissue speciﬁcfunctions, respectively. ThemiR-10family, known to target Hoxgenes, were highly expressed in the developmental stages. The proportion of miR-430 family members, participating in maternal RNA clearance, was high at the earliest developmental stage.
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