Educational Decentralization in Southern Sudan : a study of community participation and democratic leadership in two primary schools in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan


Publication date



Høgskolen i Oslo. Avdeling for lærerutdanning og internasjonale studier

Document type


Master i flerkulturell og internasjonal utdanning


The purpose of this study is to explore what governance structures and leadership styles enhance community participation in school governance. The study specifically explored community participation and democratic leadership in improving school governance and management. Qualitative research approach was applied and twenty three (23) informants were interviewed for this study. The study sample comprises of Ministry of Education officials, School Management Committee (SMC) and Parent Teachers Association (PTA) members who represent the parents and the community, Head teachers, and teachers. Interviews, documents evidence, and general observation have been employed as a means of data collection methods. This use of interviews is to allow the informant express his or her views based on the subjective school of though. The data collected was analysed inductively. Educational decentralization is the common way through which community can participate in the governance and management of the schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. Governance and community participation, and organization theories which comprises of critical organization theory, bureaucratic theory, stakeholders theory, and Role theory form the bedrock of the study. The study reveals that the schools have formal structures (SMC and PTA) that promotes community participation in school governance, and that these formal structures are an expression of democratic governance that allow the community to participate in the governance and management of the school through democratic practices and democratic leadership that allows broader participation of the stakeholders in the governance and management of the school. The research findings reveal that community through the SMC and the PTA participate in the governance and management of the schools as the community is engaged in resources mobilization, planning, budgeting, school development, policy formulation, administration and financing of the school, but policies on the curriculum and exams is under the government and that the community is also limited with lacks training, and skills. As such the roles played by the community are underperformed and financed. The study concludes that community participation and democratic leadership enhance school governance and management, as educational providers are hold accountable by the community in this democratic school governance and management.


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