Background: Obesity, a major cause of death and disability, is increasing worldwide. Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state which is suggested to play a critical role in the development of obesity-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In fact, in the hours following consumption of a meal, a transient increase in inflammatory markers occurs, a response that is exaggerated in obese subj ects. Dietary composition, including content of dietary fatty acids, may affect this inflammatory response both acutely and chronically, and thereby be predictive of progression of disease. The aim of the review was to summarize the literature from 2010 to 2016 regarding the effects of dietary fat intake on level s of inflammatory markers in overweight and obesity in human randomized controlled trials. Methods and results: We performed a literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed databases. The literature search included human randomized controlled trials, both po stprandial and long-term interventions, from January 2010 to September 2016. In total, 37 articles were included. Interventions with dairy products, vegetable oils, or nuts showed minor effects on inflammatory markers. The most consistent i nflammatory-mediating effects were found in intervention with whole diets, which suggests that many components of the diet reduce inflammation synergistically. Furthermore, interventions with weight reduction and different fatty acids did not clearly show beneficial effects on inflammatory markers. Conclusion: Most interventions showed either no or minor effects of dietary fat intake on inflammatory markers in overweight and obese subjects. To progress our understanding on how diet and dietary components affect our health, mechanistic studies are required. Hence, future studies should include whole diets and characterization of obese phenotypes at a molecular level, including omics data and gut microbiota.
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