Diet in pregnancy prior to gestational diabetes diagnosis in women in Oslo, Norway Food intake, diet quality and recommendations


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Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus. Institutt for sykepleie og helsefremmende arbeid

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Master i samfunnsernæring


Introduction: Diet during pregnancy is important for both the health of the mother and her offspring. A food intake in accordance with the national recommendations can reduce risk of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, following the dietary advice can reduce risk of complications from gestational diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to increase knowledge on the diet during pregnancy prior to gestational diabetes diagnosis in women in Oslo. Baseline data gathered from the on-going Pregnant+ study are used for analysis. The secondary objectives were to describe the food intake during pregnancy using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire, develop a scoring system to examine diet quality through adherence to dietary recommendations and evaluate diet using the scoring system. Methods: This quantitative, cross-sectional study uses a 41-item food frequency questionnaire to describe diet, and a self-developed scoring system to further compare diet with recommendations. The score is bases on national recommendations for food intake. Participants were recruited at their initial meeting in the diabetes outpatient clinic in five major hospitals in the Oslo area. The women recruited September 2015-April 2016 are included in this thesis. Background variables were added to the statistical program SPSS and score development and analysis were conducted by use of SPSS.Results: 75 women participated in the study, 55% were born in Norway. The intake of vegetables, fruits and berries, wholegrain and low-fat milk were less frequent than recommended in the majority of the sample. The majority met the recommended frequency for intake of fish. The salt intake was most likely exceeding the amount recommended. Conclusion: Dietary intake might not be met by recommendations in the majority of the categories, although it is not possible to conclude, as the amount per frequency could not be estimated accurately.


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