The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally and numerically the effect of the crosswind and wagon numbers to the aerodynamic characteristics as well as fuel consumption of the locomotive Alstom AD43C and some specified passenger wagons behind it. Turbulent, incompressible, and 3D airflow has been considered for numerical simulation. Simulations are carried out for yaw angles 0°, 15°, and 30° for different airflow velocities. A total of 16 pressure tabs were employed to measure the air pressure at various points on the 1:26 scaled model of the train in the experimental investigation. Comparison between the numerical and the experimental results verifies the numerical simulation method. The results show that the variation of the longitudinal force coefficient (LFC) and side force coefficient (SFC) in the middle wagons (except for the first two and last two wagons) is similar. The LFC and SFC of these wagons are 0.239 and 1.251, respectively, for the Reynolds number 1.587 × 105 (airflow velocity 30 m/s) and the yaw angle 30°. However, the Reynolds number effect is insignificant. The yaw angle effect on the train fuel consumption is more important. Moreover, the fuel consumption increases by approximately 25 % from the yaw angle 0° to 30° for ten wagons at the Reynolds number 1.587 × 105.
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